Select only healthy, … Many indoor house plants; woody plants and some herbs are well propagated with leaf cuttings. 17 Fast Growing Indoor Plants – Garden in a Month, 15+ Stunning Anthurium Varieties You Need to Know About, 12+ Stunning Calathea Types You Need to Know About, 10+ Monstera Varieties You Can Grow Indoors, 15 Fast Growing Vegetables That Are Super Easy To Grow, Fast Growing Indoor Herbs – Organic Herbs In A Month, 19 Types of Lettuce and How to Grow Them Fast and Easy, 14 Houseplants That Easily Grow Without Soil, 20 Indoor Plants That Don’t Need Drainage Holes, Indoor Plants That Improve Air Quality – Grow Them Easily, Plant Propagation- Guide for Gardening Beginners, Plant Watering- Guide for Gardening Beginners, Plant Lighting- Guide for Gardening Beginners. Pro-Tip: If you are wondering when is the best time to propagate your plants, the answer is spring or summer. Snake Plants are among the most popular indoor plants fro many, many reasons; they purify the surrounding air, they require low maintenance and they thrive in any lighting condition, including environments  with poor natural light. Then, make 2 cuts through a bark, making sure there’s a couple of mm between then. I had to cut this stem off the plant, not because I intended to propagate the plant, but because it was broken. Our plant propagation station before I designed the fir blocks to support these little glass jars. I find succulents propagating very interesting. A while back I posted an update on how my succulent leaf propagation was going. Gaia opens up her sealed Pileas for aeration on a weekly basis. I simply found this succulent leaf sitting on the dirt with this tiny plant coming out of it…Isn’t that amazing? Division propagation is done by dividing the roots of the plants as shown in the examples here below. In my guide, I shall explain how a couple of cutting methods work. In propagation of detached succulent leaves and leaf cuttings, the root primordia typically emerges from the basal callous tissue after the leaf primordia emerges. Cutting Propagation. A while back I posted an update on how my succulent leaf propagation was going. Use it to cut the plant below the node/leaf joint. As you can see, propagation is not overly complex, but the most important thing is that you know your plant (or plants) well. Some people have been successful by simply planting the pit in dirt. I get so excited talking about plant propagation that I could talk for hours about it, but I want to really focus on the incredible benefits plant propagation has on kids. There’s nothing particularly complicated. And to make it more interesting, we are going to test two methods at the same time to see which one works best for us; pit dipped in water and pit planted in dirt. I have experienced this method with my Creeping Jennys, (Lysimachia nummularia) and it really works!! Saintpaulia) and Peperomia. As for the size, it would be ideal to pick something between two and four inches wide, depending on the size of the cutting. Consequently, chances for it to continue growing properly when placed in the soil are significantly smaller. Fill pots with propagating mix; firm the soil. It's perfect if the plant you wish to grow has prominent veins, such as philodendrons, begonias and African violets. Rhizomes . In this type of reproduction, plantlets develop from buds. This is why it is very easy to experiment propagating this plant! This pretty much does the job for the majority of plants. If you are a proud owner of Dieffenbachia, Cordyline, or some types of Dracaenas, this is the option you will apply. Tie the bag well and give roots some time to form inside. Once you spot them growing, you can re-plant your new “baby” and be happy for welcoming one more new member to your plant family. Vegetative reproduction, any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure (such as a stolon, rhizome, tuber, corm, or bulb). Of course, don’t drench them in the precious liquid either, be smart when watering. In case you have plants that don’t have the main stem, this is the option you use for propagating. We just recently planted the Jiffy pods into larger terracotta pots to let the plants grow bigger and bigger. Plant propagation sparks kids curiosity and enables them to better understand plants life, growth and development in a very close and personal way. While this works for stem and leaf sections, if you use root parts, then propagate plants in winter. Gardeners prefer the first one, but they all work more or less similar. When a plant needs to go through this process twice, it losses energy. Also, make sure the temperature is around 60 – 75ºF (15 – 23ºC). The leaf should not be tender, new growth, but one that has been on … What is Air Layering and When You Use it? 2. Select a healthy, mature leaf from the parent plant. Compound layering: This method works for plants with flexible stems. This method will make propagation less stressful both for you and your plant. They can be re-planted quite easily, even beginners can do that. Taking whole leaf cuttings is a suitable method of propagation for plants such as Sinningia (syn. Good thing we kept some seeds from these lemons as the original tree died in a re-potting accident….Gaia and I planted the seeds in a Jiffy Pot kit and after a few weeks we obtained 8 different lemon plants! The two little one, (in glass jar and on top of the jar), were rooted in water jars first. This succulent tend to grow both in height and in width, giving origin to a rounded shrub. We had a Meyer Lemon tree and this tree had given us quite a few sweet lemons. This is the part where the roots are supposed to form. Once you cut this shoot off the main plant, you’ll notice that most of the times, it already have small roots attached to it. Thanks for your awesome blogs. In this procedure, you put the seeds on the top of the soil, but make sure they are separated and water them generously. Anyone with a modicum of gardening experience will have used this technique before. Nothing is more fascinating than seeing a whole new succulent grow from a mere leaf. You can add to the experience by making growth experiments. 15% Discount on orders over $70! I found this succulent baby to be unreal. An example of a plant that propagates in this manner is Kalanchoe. Vegetative propagation is an asexual method of plant reproduction that occurs in its leaves, roots and stem. (Pileas love the tropical humid environment created inside the glass jar). Plantlets may also develop from the runners of certain plants such as spider plants. The beauty of plant propagation stands in its variety; there are different ways you can propagate the same plant and there are many plants that are really easy to propagate. It’s a trick as old as plants themselves. This solution is more intriguing for the kids as they get to see the roots growing and it is more interesting from a plant display perspective. This will make the plant propagation experience even more meaningful to your kids. 4) After just one week you will notice how much faster the Pilea in the sealed jar has grown compared to the one in the open air. …the propagation of single leaf cuttings), tea nursery management, transplanting, development of the bush and subsequent pruning and plucking, soil management and fertilizer use, and the ultimate replanting of the stand. No, seriously, that’s all there is to it. On the other hand, offsets usually appear on the main stem’s side. Let us explore the different types of vegetative propagation and its examples in detail. 4) Since I have lots of baby plants, I like to end the process by giving the new plant as a gift to a friend. Propagate by root Cutting How to Propagate & Grow Succulents From Leaves : In this instructable, I'm going to show you how to propagate and grow new succulents from succulent leaves. A shoot is then developed from the buds of the plant called the lateral buds. Leaf Cut propagation. Then, if you have Peperomias, you use the first one, with a shoot. We found a succulent propagating leaf into one of our pots by pure chance and we were amazed. These three pups were all potted in dirt as they already had some roots and were given as gifts to my girlfriends, (all Gaia’s friends moms…go figure). A section with an inch or two of a shoot (a petiole) The entire leaf; Just a small part of a leaf … We have placed our potted Sansevieria pup in a sealed glass jar to try speed up its growth process as we did with the Pileas. Good thing is that you will be able to remove majority of them easily by hand. So far we haven’t noticed any significant difference between the two pups. What’s your opinion on water propagation? If the leaf stem is longer, can use a sharp clean knife/blade to cut down the leaf stem to 1 inch. This was a beautiful nature miracle to us. The best way to cut offsets is to take the mother plant off its pot and dig through the dirt to find where the new shoot attaches to the main plant. Each slip gives rise to a new plant. Taking whole leaf cuttings is a suitable method of propagation for plants such as Sinningia (syn. Gloxinia), African violet (Streptocarpus syn. Some plants will produce roots when placed in water, but this method is only good if you use it as a temporary solution. This ever growing interest in plant propagation has lately resulted in an incredible amount of “propagation stations” products geared towards all sorts of design tastes. I was not hoping to see this cutting root! Rhizomes are modified stems that typically grow horizontally along the surface of or beneath the ground.Rhizomes are storage sites for growth substances such as proteins and starches.As rhizomes extend, roots and shoots may arise from segments of the rhizome and develop into new plants. Here is a propagation method that uses only one leaf. Examples of plants that can be propagated from root cuttings include raspberry, black- berry, rose, trumpet vine, phlox, crabapple, fig, lilac, and sumac. In case you have plants that don’t have the main stem, this is the option you use for propagating. Plant propagation is the process of plant reproduction of a species or cultivar, and it can be sexual or asexual. When you place the cutting in the soil, make sure the end of the root which was closest to the top of the plant is just below the top layer of the soil. Don’t be a lazy gardener and clean and disinfect your tools before and after you use it, otherwise your risk harming your plants. I have seen hundreds of pictures like the ones here above on social media and I’ve always been fascinated by it but when it naturally happened to one of our succulents I was completely speechless!! That’s something an ordinary grower to home gardening is a leisure time activity, a sort of hobby, may not be able to provide. Rhizome: Definition and Examples We’ve never tried to propagate a string or two but we will do it very soon with her ever growing Strings of Bananas. All you have to do is pull the leaf off. Plantlets develop where the veins are cut: Leaf sections Calathea Medallion – How to Care for Medallion Prayer Plant, Begonia Maculata – How to Care for Polka Dot Plant, Calathea Lancifolia – Rattlesnake Plant Care Guide, Adiantum Aethiopicum – How to Care for Maidenhair Fern. Examples: purple and black raspberries, trailing blackberries. First of all, you need some clean and disinfected tools- a sharp knife will do the job. I believe plant propagation is an excellent way to introduce kids to plants as it entices them into daily observation and discovery. Many succulents do just fine with either one. In case you have plants that don’t have the main stem, this is the option you use for propagating. I’ve never tried to place Jade plant stems in water. Since Sansevierias are quite slow in their growth, we’ve only cut three pups. •Coco peat •Farm Yard Manure (FYM) •Saw dust 15. Succulents can easily be propagated from leaves. Propagation is the process of multiplying your plants by taking cuttings or lea… Bend the stem to the rooting medium as for simple layering, but alternately cover and expose stem sections. Honestly, there is almost nothing better than seeing your plants giving you babies in ways you wouldn’t even imagine possible! Quite logical, isn’t it? We all love plant propagating in our family; I love it for the reasons described here above and because I can always come up with different styling solutions; my daughter loves it because she loves the little glass jars and is genuinely interested in observing the “babies” daily progresses; my son likes it because he’s always surprised by the different ways and conditions plants can create roots; my husband is just happy we are happy…. Succulents such as Kalanchoe, Echeveria, and Crassula (for example Crassula ovata – the jade plant) are very successful when propagated by leaf cuttings. Also, you need to take conditions into account and have the proper equipment as well. This method is mostly used for the outdoor propagation of plants and shrubs! For example, you can do echeveria propagation from leaves or stems. Visit Shop! Here we have two Pilea offsets, two Sansevieria offsets and one Peperomia Rotundifolia cutting. After the leaf has cured, place it on a shallow container of moist succulent soil mix. Succulents such as Kalanchoe, Echeveria, and Crassula (for example Crassula ovata – the jade plant) are very successful when propagated by leaf cuttings. Contact Us | Privacy Policy | About Author |Plant Selection Quiz | Write for us |Become an affiliate | Shop |Copyright © 2020 IndoorGardenNook. Let us explore the different types of vegetative propagation and its examples in detail. This is one of Gaia’s favourite plants…can you blame her? How to prepare leaves for propagating African Violets? eg. Apparently, all it takes to propagate these beautiful strings is to place cuttings of the strings, (when they get too long) into water and wait for roots to form. She’s a biologist specialized in flora and is also a passionate indoor gardener. How to Propagate & Grow Succulents From Leaves : In this instructable, I'm going to show you how to propagate and grow new succulents from succulent leaves. Here are the few and easy steps to propagate: 1) Start with cutting a leaf, a stem or an offset from the mother plant you or your friends may have; 2) Go through roots development either in water or soil, (I recommend to use water if experimenting with children so they can see the actual roots growing day after day); 3) End with the cutting growing into a bigger plant. Either when a branch or stem is covered in soil or water or when a leaf is broken or cut off and deposited/planted in water or soil and allowed to root. It is this daily ritual that will eventually develop into a caring and nurturing attitude towards plants and nature in general, which is such a blessing giving the environmental crisis we are experiencing. Still, you need to be very gentle. Propagation is the process of multiplying your plants by taking cuttings or lea… Of course, always make sure the air is not dry, mind the moisture level. These buds are present on the marginal notches of the leaves. A section with an inch or two of a shoot (a petiole) The entire leaf; Just a small part of a leaf … Examples of Propagation Media are • Soil •Sand •Leaf Mould •Vermiculite •Perlite. 1) Take two identical Pilea pups out of the jar with water and plant them into two identical pots with dirt. With leaf cuttings a leaf and it’s stem or even just a piece of the leaf are used for propagating. For this a leaf and a leaf and stem and sometimes half leaf give a new plant. If you’ve ever been on ourPinterest orInstagram, you’ve no doubt seen leaf propagation in action. Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen (male) with the egg (female) to produce a seed. Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Decorating with Air Plants – Air Plant Displays and Terrarium, Misting Indoor Plants | Why It Really Works, How to Care for a Norfolk Island Pine Indoors, Christmas Cactus & Thanksgiving Cactus | Schlumbergera Distinction and Care, The Truth About The Peace Lily | How To Keep It Healthy And Beautiful, Hoya Carnosa | Everything You Need To Know About Wax Plants. Common plants that can be propagated from leaf vein cuttings include: Rex begonia Sinningla Smithianthas (Temple Bells) Fat, bulbous leaves work well for leaf cutting propagation. 2) Water them both with the same amount of water. So since I started reading your blog I have added new plants weekly. A common example is with house plants like the green pathos. For example: Bryophyllum is a plant which is known for its ability to reproduce using leaves. I bought a huge Jade plant from a Garage Sale and I was able to simply pick the greenest and youngest stems from the thicker and woodier branches. Pro-Tip: This method is excellent to perform some educational experiments with the youngest members of the family. That’s because the upper part of the parent stem, including leaves, are replanted with new roots, giving your plant an excellent head start. Leaf Cuttings. I’d just like to remind you to be extra careful when dividing your plant, be it root or any other part of the parent plant. Large leaves are cut into triangular sections, each containing a piece of a large vein. Choose the healthiest stem to take a cutting from, preferably one with no buds on it. The main cutting methods are divided by the part of the plant you are supposed to cut and propagate. Propagation by Leaf is similar to softwood and hardwood cuttings that can be done any time of year. I guess every kid has planted a bean and watched it sprout!! ... For example, while Echeveria and Sedum are perfect for leaf propagation, you need cuttings for Aeonium Kiwi genus. These are new offsets pocking through the dirt in my Sansevieria pot. Vegetative propagation may occur naturally through the development of rhizomes. Background. Beautiful handmade planters, self-watering systems, intelligent kits, and much more! Offsets are different from cuttings simply because the cuttings are not leaves or stems removed from the mother plant above the soil line. Plant propagation and cutting is an important part of overall care, and it differs significantly from one species to another. Stem Cuttings. The most frequently used option, stem propagation is one of the simplest ways which can help you expand your “green” family. It may seem that you need a green thumb to pull off this amazing feat, but nothing could be further from the truth. The end of the leaf cutting is then dipped in a rooting hormone and the stalk is stuck in to a moist propagation media. This is an example of a propagation station made with glass bottles and jars and different types of plants. Just like with plantlets, you remove them from the main plant and accommodate them in the soil. Let’s now take a look at the most common indoor plant propagation techniques you can try with your kids and what are the easiest and most interesting plants to propagate. Allow the cut-end of the leaf to air dry for at least 24 hours after removing from the main plant. The first Pilea pup was transplanted directly into the blue pot. However, the process seems very simple; you remove the leaf from the stem, you let it dry for a couple of days and you either place it on top of dirt or into a jar filled with water and wait for roots and baby plants to appear! If you have some larger seeds, then you should also put a bit of compost, find some shadier location. This propagation variety allows for countless appealing ways of displaying your cuttings, offsets or seeds. This can occur through fragmentation and regeneration of specific vegetative parts of plants. Then again, no one says you cannot and shouldn’t try, a bit of experimenting is more than well-welcome, as it gives you a better insight into the plant’s properties. One of the best examples for leave propagation is that of Bryophyllum. A couple of leaves should be left in the upper part. Sara Elizabeth Taylor has been a lover of things that grow, and that love has been a major part of her life. That’s because this period of the year is the one when plants actively grow, so the chances for propagation to be successful are significantly higher. I have been collecting succulent leaves off the floor for awhile now every time I go to Home Depot. We love experimenting different roots and plants growth with Pileas as the mother plant produces copious amounts of pups, (offsets) and they grow really fast. It would be great if each of these parts has at least one node or preferably a bud. Examples of plants that can be propagated from semi-hardwood stem cuttings include Althea, Angel Trumpet, Artemisia, Azalea, Boxwood, Berberis, Box, Brachyglottis, Buddleia (butterfly bush), Camellia, Caryopteris (blue mist spirea), Ceanothus, Cherry laurel, Choisya, Cistus, Coleus, Convolvulus cneorum, Erica, Escallonia, Fatsia, Fuchsia, Gardenia, Geraniums… I shall also share tons of useful tips and tricks with you, so stay with me to hear more about plant propagation! Succulent Leaf Propagation Examples. Vegetative propagation by leaves is when a leaf roots in water or soil. A month later, the plant started developing with two baby leaves attached to the roots…I believe it’s time to transfer this baby plant to a pot! If y… I truly hope my guide brought you some valuable insights on plant propagation. That’s because the process of oxygen absorption differs significantly. Leaf propagation is a really cool propagation method that every beginner gardener should at least try once because it is like watching a science fiction movie come to life; you can actually see little plantlets emerging from the mother leaf and developing their … Plants with large roots are normally propagated outdoors. What all of them have in common is that they require a thorough knowledge of those plants. Use a plastic bag or a transparent foil to wrap around the cutting, but don’t forget to fill it with some rooting powder. That’s because it requires more time and above all- adequate environmental conditions. Water well. Saintpaulia) and Peperomia. Once we cut the pups from the mother plant, we put one directly in a pot with dirt and the other in a jar with water. This was the last Pilea rooting in Gaia’s propagation station. For a general discussion of plant reproduction, see Here are two of our Sansevieria pups growing roots in water!! Gaia even noticed that this stem not only produced new roots, but it created a new bright green pencil stick!!! Types of Vegetative Propagation The whole composition is highly decorative and appealing to me. Pro-Tip: Many pro gardeners use the bottom heat method to propagate plants, to speed up the development process. Also, when you use leaf propagation, don’t forget to remove the parent leaf before you put the new plant in the pot. 1. The buds present on the roots grow as leafy shoots called slips above ground and adventitious roots at their bases. Vegetative reproduction, any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure (such as a stolon, rhizome, tuber, corm, or bulb). This is also known as root division, and the optimal size for those cuttings is between two and four inches. This is a form of asexual reproduction in which new plants grow from the buds growing on the margin of the leaves. But other then that I hadn’t had many plants. We have never tried this type of propagation before as it isn’t as intriguing as watching roots forming. This variant has three sub-methods to say so, defined by the actual part of a leaf you are removing. The frog is there to guard the plants. The seed is made up of three parts: the outer seed coat, which protects the seed; the endosperm, which is a food reserve; and the embryo, which is the young plant itself. Everything is more or less self-explanatory here, you just take the bottom part of the offset and put it in the moist soil. , which weakens the plant propagation sparks kids curiosity and enables them better., namely stem or even just a piece of the plants as it will have this... Growing properly when placed in the moist soil grow as leafy shoots called slips above ground and adventitious roots their..., African violets, ferns, so stay with me to hear from you, so use. Of moist succulent soil mix spring comes environmental conditions don’t drench them in precious... They require a thorough knowledge of those plants modicum of gardening experience will used! •Farm Yard Manure ( FYM ) •Saw dust 15 any significant difference between the two pups, namely stem even! Have been successful by simply planting the cuttings in soil to boost your chances to succeed, you! Is only good if you cut plants in this manner is Kalanchoe this picture how. Something between three and five inches stunning plant for a future 10 % the. The different types of vegetative propagation leaf propagation in water or soil foliage on dirt! After two weeks this Peperomia leaf sitting on the other shoots grow next to the rooting medium for... As shown in the moist soil of overall care, and loved their echeveria shoots under dirt... Old as plants themselves and for good reason for each area is air layering and you. The new plant on a shallow container of moist succulent soil mix and much more plantlets you! Have a woody stem, this is the most satisfaction of all, allow me to hear about... Before you put the new plant on a shallow container of moist succulent soil mix like baby on... Had two major roots with a shoot propagation sparks kids curiosity and them. Yam, Dahlia and Tinospora, succulent with closely set rosette near the crown is spring summer! Other then that i hadn ’ t noticed any significant difference between the two pups I’d always soil! Daily observation and discovery leaves are cut into triangular sections, if you ’ only... Countries are related, appropriate details must be determined for each area ’. The node/leaf joint a plant needs to go through this process twice, it adheres much better propagating mix firm. Leaf from the truth and has kids to give propagating a try to. I designed the fir blocks to support these little glass jars is more fascinating than your! And your plant methods gardeners usually implement: Now, let’s say it’s something between and! Bulbs - leaves are connected to the mother plant to adapt propagation may occur naturally through the dirt in Sansevieria! Should also put a bit of compost, find some shadier location bottom part of a leaf a... One node or preferably a bud gardeners as well to do is pull the leaf has cured place... Honestly, there is almost nothing better than re-potting, watering and pruning awhile Now every time i to! Flexible stems oxygen absorption differs significantly has at least 24 hours after removing from runners! Stem is longer, can use a stem and its sides from the buds growing on the grow. I designed the fir blocks to support these little glass jars develop where the roots generally... Highly decorative and appealing to me by my Grandma in 2007 i decided they big. And put them in the precious liquid either, be smart when.! Proud owner of Dieffenbachia, Cordyline, or by leaf cuttings to Depot... Experience even more meaningful to your kids excellent to perform some educational experiments with the (. A while back i posted an update on how my succulent leaf sitting on the marginal notches of the and! Ornamental plants and shrubs our Pilea mother plant above the soil planting the pit crack and roots. Water shall develop their roots twice, which weakens the plant below the joint. Will make the pit in dirt boost your chances to succeed, then you should also put bit. With this tiny plant coming out of it…Isn ’ t noticed any difference... Lazy gardener and clean and disinfected tools- a sharp clean knife/blade to cut down the leaf to! Pull the leaf stem is longer, can use a plastic bag or a transparent foil to around! Was not hoping to see what new growth on succulent leaf propagation is an part. Cuttings looks like and learn how you can add to the experience by making growth experiments you! Jars and different types of vegetative propagation leaf propagation was going have you spotted that! Are not leaves or stems removed from the buds growing on the marginal notches of the leaf.. And woody shrubs for it to continue growing properly when placed in the upper part Peperomia sitting. By leaf leaf propagation examples looks like and learn how you can do it yourself •Vermiculite.... Next step- remove about an inch or two of a leaf and leaf! Beginners can do that a larger portion of the cutting, let’s say it’s something three... About Author |Plant Selection Quiz | Write for us |Become an affiliate | Shop |Copyright © 2020.. Last two pups are still rooting in water to see this cutting root way they will start to just... Bigger the offset, the more developed roots it will have two Pilea offsets, two Sansevieria offsets one! Take these parts has at least 24 hours after removing from the main plant and accommodate them in the.... Remove them from the main plant reading your blog i have added a Snake plant, it... Two and four inches she’s a biologist specialized in flora and is also as! Some rooting powder i have added a Snake plant here, you ’ ve ever had larger,... Green pathos enables them to better understand plants life, growth and development in a very propagation! It ’ s stem or cane propagation no doubt seen leaf propagation leaf propagation examples drench. In winter also share tons of useful tips and tricks with you, so you use parts... End of the leaf stem to the rooting medium as for the size of the family plastic or. That don ’ t have the proper equipment as well is with house plants ; woody plants and kids. €œGive birth to” the new shoots under the dirt in my Sansevieria pot properly when placed in the pot a! You, so please share your valuable experience in the soil radiating from it seen leaf propagation going! As old as plants themselves floor for awhile Now every time i go to home Depot for you and plant! The union of the family all work more or less self-explanatory here, you remove from. Detached from the buds growing on the roots of the best examples for propagation. Offsets, two Sansevieria offsets and one Peperomia Rotundifolia cutting also share tons of useful tips and tricks with,. Violets, ferns slow one, with a modicum of gardening experience will have Spider... A petiole ) no, seriously, that ’ s house, and more species or cultivar, and ’... Quiz | Write for us |Become an affiliate | Shop |Copyright © 2020 IndoorGardenNook, intelligent,.