There occurs a wide variety of tropical wood. They are also soft as they are organic (made up of mainly rotting plant materials) in nature. Much of the peat areas were marked as  swamp areas for this reason. } This approach was supported by the work of Gurmit et al. workshop on classification and management of peat in Malaysia. The results in Table 1 show the opinions of the five  experts after their critical evaluations of the problems stated. It was identified as a one of a major group of soil found in Malaysia. Most of the publications on CO2 emission on drained tropical lowland peat soils have been extrapolated from experiences based on temperate peat. The planting of  sago palms and oil palms on peat soils were then tried and found to be economically feasible. callback: callback However, we must caution that the problems with planting oil palms on deep peat escalated exponentially with the areas of peat, particularly in relation to the amount of good mineral soils in the plantation. Figure 1: Peat soil distribution map in Sarawak, Malaysia [2] 2.0 Several researchers have studied on the soft or peat soil TEST MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY Different types of peat soils were collected from six different locations (e.g., L 1 to L 6) in Matang area (from 0.40 to 0.80 m depth) designated as M 1 to M 6, respectively.  Friends of the Earth (2008) estimated the CO2 emissions to be 70  tonnes ha-1year-1 under oil palm cultivation. } (2014). } RSS, Leading the way in conservation opportunities and efforts, To promote the market expansion of Malaysian plam oil and its products by enhancing the image of palm oil and…, sapric  (very high stage of decomposition), hemic (moderate stage of decomposition) and, Cultivated tropical peat soils have lower CO2 emission than reported. A larger degree of breakdown quickly takes place in a soil with fibric materials when drained, resulting in higher CO2 emission. The high water table and the soft nature of the soil make peat soils soggy and it is not easy to walk on an undrained peat soil without sinking down. (function() { The irreversible drying of the top layer is prevented by maintaining satisfactory water-level of 50 to 70 cm from surface, and good ground vegetation of light grasses and low density of Nephrolepis biserrata . This is a major problem for infrastructure development as the geotechnical properties of peat soils are lower than mineral soils. MALAYSIA Problem Soils: Managing Deep Peat. Review of emission factors for assessment of CO2 emission from land use change to oil palm in Southeast Asia.  Technical Panel of the 2nd Greenhouse Gas Working Group of RSPO. Veloo,R.,Paramananthan,S., van Ranst,E. The first problem confronting a developer is to remove the excessive water in the peat swamp before felling and clearing operation can be initiated. on: function (event, callback) { Nevertheless, the results in Table 1 pointed to the fact that the CO2 emissions should range between 40 to 95 tonnes ha-1year-1. 603 - 7806 4097 EPA-420-F-14-061. Oil palms are cultivated on peat on a large scale since the mid fifties. Peat covers approximately 8" of the land or about 3 million ha. Peer review of the emission factor for tropical peatlands drained for palm oil cultivation. Opinions from 5 experts on CO2 emissions in tropical peat drained for oil palm cultivation*, .table-s{border: 1px solid #cccccc;}
.table-s th{border: 1px solid #cccccc; } .table-s td{border: 1.5px solid #cccccc; background-color:#00868b; color: white;}, Source * EPA (2014) Based on the soil survey and mapping of a total of 700,000 hectares of lowland peat in Southeast Asia, the majority of them can be classified as Saprists (Paramanathan, personal communication). } This emission is 4.4 times larger than the emission reported in temperate and boreal peat, which is 15,944 tonnes ha-1year-1 (Oleszczuk, 2008). Thus the priority is to provide high N rate (up to 1.2 kg urea palm-1 yr-1) in the initial immature phase and subsequently reduce it during the mature phase (0.5 to 1.25 kg urea palm-1 yr-1). Palm Oil Trade Fair And Seminar (POTS) 2020 Announcement, Palm Oil Trade Fair and Seminar (POTS) 2020 – Announcement. New classification systems for tropical organic rich deposits based on studies of the Tasek Bera Basin, Malaysia, Catena 53,133-163. He has published more than 100 research articles on the topic. SITEMAP Proper soil and water management of oil palms on deep peat has resulted in FFB production closely mirroring that on good mineral soils (Figure 3). Biogeosciences 9: 1053-1071. Temperate peat deposits are also known to be derived from bryophytes and small shrubs while tropical peat deposits are derived from various tree species with root penetration up to several meters  (Wust, 2003). However, major problems were encountered especially on deep peat and it was not until the eighties that oil palms are successful grown on it. New evidence obtained from detailed soil surveys, mapping and classification shows that the majority of Malaysian lowland peat soils are mainly sapric and with many of them containing wood.   United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has given a higher CO2 emission value of 95 tonnes ha-1year-1 based on the study of Hooijer et al. Jour. Tropical peat materials, just like temperate peat materials  can be differentiated based on the stage of decomposition.  There are 3 stages of decomposition, namel. Farming is a major economic activity which has been successfully carried out on peatland in Malaysia; starting with planting of vegetables and cash crops such as pineapples and tapioca or cassava during the second half  of the 20th century. Most of researchers conducted investigations on the dynamic loading of soft soils such as sand and clay, but only a few had discovered the behaviour of peat in terms of static and dynamic loadings. Peatlands cover about 3% of the earth’s land mass; they are found in the temperate (Northern Europe and America) and tropical regions (South East Asia, South America, South Africa and the … Oil palm plantations keep a high water table at 50-70 cm by following RSPO’s Best Management Practices for oil palm cultivation on peatland so as to obtain better yields. Many publications on the CO2 emission on tropical peat extrapolate or use information from work carried out  on temperate peat. In Malaysia, peat soil has been identified as one of the major groups of soils with low shear strength and high compressibility. As such, mapping virgin peat soil areas is not liked by many soil surveyors. Thus, the amount of CO2 emission when the peat soil is drained is lower for one that has sapric instead of fibric material. Sandy soil within peat areas is proven to perform worse than at least 3 types of peat soil in this case (i.e. 7th Floor, Menara Axis, In Malaysia, virgin lowland peat areas are often flooded and swampy. during the early Malaysian reconnaissance soil surveys.  Since peat soils are organic in nature, the bulk density is also low. Field investigation: For laboratory investigation, peat soil was sampled from the Klang, Peninsular, West Malaysia. Masing, who is also the Minister of Infrastructure and Port Development, said more than 60 per cent of Sarawak’s flat land consists of peat soil. They were left untouched and not used for farming. As such, mapping virgin peat soil areas is not liked by many soil surveyors. When these peat soils are drained, the wood fragments do not decompose easily to add on to CO2 emission. It is most probably a result of improved mineralisation rate, increased soil pH and a better cationic-anionic balance in the plant system (Cheong and Ng, 1980). listeners: [], EPA carried out a peer review of the emission factor for tropical peatlands drained for oil palm cultivation and the findings were reported in December 2014. There are 2.4 million hectares of peat in Malaysia, with 1.5 million hectares occurring in Sarawak alone. RSPO manual on best management practices for existing oil palm cultivation on peat,pp214. Peat is also deficient in Cu, Zn and B. Tropical peat has not been well studied. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat. Before planting, the harvesting path and planting rows are mechanically consolidated by running an excavator 2 to 3 times over them. Moreover, blanket spraying may increase the risk of fire and affect the predator-pest balance. International Palm Oil Sustainability Conference. Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. As such, estimations of CO2 emissions are often extrapolated based on data  from temperate peat. However, excessive B application must be avoided as it can be phytotoxic and adversely affect the uptake of Cu (Gurmit et al., 1987). Proc. When peatland is drained for oil palm cultivation, break down of the peat materials releases CO2 into the atmosphere. Most oil palm roots are concentrated in the top 50 cm of the peat soil. Upon drainage, peat will undergo irreversible drying and extensive subsidence of 3.6 cm yr-1. Due consideration should be given out to overdrain the area as this will result in rapid shrinkage of the peat and irreversible drying of the top layer, which adversely affects establishment and growth of oil palms. In Peninsular Malaysia, they are found in the coastal areas of the east and west Radiah Othman, PhD, is an Associate Professor and Head of Land Management Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia. However, over the years, as development progressed, more and more mineral ( non organic)  soils were used up and the borders of the peat swamps were reached. The institute was initially established as the Tropical Peat Research Laboratory Unit (TPRL) under the mandate of the Sarawak government. Peat, in its natural state, contains excessive amount of water due to its low physiography and water holding capacity of 20 to 30 times its own weight. Hence, Oil palm has been grown on wet, organic peatlands for decades, but such cultivation has taken its toll on the land, leading to productivity loss and drainage. window.mc4wp.listeners.push({ This research was conducted from November, 2007 to February, 2008. Omar R C, Jaafar R and Hassan H 1998 Engineering Geology and Earthwork Problem Associated with Highway Construction in Soft Soil at Sg. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). While total N content can be high (1.3 to 1.5%), its availability is low due to high C:N ratio (Table 1). ( Cheong and Ng, 1977 ) the scale of improvement works, proper. Found to be economically feasible groups of soils with low shear strength and high compressibility and B for palm. Estimation of GHG emissions from peat used for farming Scholar peat subsidence ( peat soil problem in malaysia et al., ). 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